If, as the old saying goes, "rules were made to be broken," nowhere does this seem more applicable than in using Manual J and Manual D calculations when installing home HVAC systems. According to the 2012 IRC (International Residential Code), adopted by most local building department authorities as law, Manual J and Manual D calculations must be followed in the installation of all home HVAC systems. Even though legally required, these regulations are often not followed, to the detriment of affected homeowners.
Manual J, published by the Air Conditioning Contractors of America, uses a worksheet to determine proper sizing of HVAC equipment for specific applications. Factors used for the calculations include:
- Size, shape and layout of the residence
- Amount of insulation present
- Rate of air leakage
- Window sizes, orientation and glazing materials
- Heat loss and heat gain under worst-case conditions
For new construction, Manual D is utilized by incorporating calculations derived through the Manual J process to determine correct sizing and configuration of air duct systems. Use of Manual D is also required by the IRC.
It's been estimated that more than half of the HVAC installations in the U.S. are not done in compliance with Manual J and Manual D calculations but through the "rule-of-thumb" method. While the Code provides a loophole for using Manual J by allowing for, "other approved heating and cooling calculation methodologies," the rule-of-thumb method is not approved, even though it continues to be the method most often used. An example of this would be "one ton of cooling for every 400 sq. ft. of interior floor area."
Most A/C installations are known to use oversized equipment, in lieu of properly sizing units according to precise calculations provided by Manual J. These systems are more expensive to buy and operate, provide substandard air comfort conditions and allow for high humidity in your home's interior air.
Thermacon Service Company, Inc., has been serving our clients in the Golden Triangle area of Texas for 30-plus years, using Manual J and Manual D to precisely size our HVAC installations. Please contact us for information/advice on any of your home air comfort/quality needs.